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Fictional work set in a historical period, from the middle ages through the 19th century, typically dramatizing the exploits of actual historical figures or incidents, including kings and battles, rebellion, piracy and the Spanish Main, travel, exploration, and the creation of empires. Larger ideological issues are mythicized and conflicts personalized over historical accuracy. Adventure usually involves a courageous, altruistic and patriotic hero willing to fight for his beliefs, who becomes involved in a struggle for freedom by overcoming oppression and helping to create a more just society.

Note: Not necessary to also use Historical, since that is implied by Adventure. If work includes supernatural or magic, use Fantasy. Other genres often confused with Adventure include Ancient world, Animal, Aviation, Crime, Thriller, Science fiction, Survival, and War; for a comprehensive list, examine the see references under Action-adventure. Nonfiction work on the exploration of untamed lands and remote regions and the challenges of living in such areas, often surviving against harsh natural surroundings and the clashing of the explorer, usually from the West, with the cultural traditions of the indigenous people. Utilizing a realist tradition, such work may nonetheless be narrativized in a pseudo- documentary fashion, presenting a story of representative characters and incidents in a locale, rather than actual individuals or events. Work whose view of the world or narrative presentation indicate they are aimed predominantly at a young, preteen audience. Frequently children, or older individuals or animals, presented in a child-like manner, are the primary protagonists, with adults either absent or relatively remote or menacing secondary characters.

Note: This genre refers largely to the intended audience, rather than a specific narrative formula, and may frequently be noted in combination with a more specifically formulaic genre.

Fictional work depicting a narrative descent into the underworld of syndicates, criminals, and their lawless activities, such as the drug trade, or bootlegging during the Prohibition era. The plot turns on such questions as how a criminal will be caught or who stole the object of value. Work in which the overall intent is to amuse, although the humor may have a serious, even pessimistic side. Although many works in different genres may contain humorous moments, a work is considered to be a comedy when the intent and the expression of the plot itself is humorous or when the tone of the entire work is overwhelmingly comic. Fictional work depicting a large-scale natural or man-made calamity, such as an airplane crash or a wreck at sea, that isolates a group of people in imminent danger. They must devise at least part of their method of escape (sometimes outside assistance awaits) with only minimal materials at hand. Principle source of tension is in the question of how the extraordinary measures necessary for a rescue will be implemented and which of the varied and often self-destructive characters will have the inner resources to endure the ordeal. (Nonfiction), Art, Biographical (Nonfiction), Dance, Educational, Ethnic (Nonfiction), Ethnographic, Home shopping, Industrial, Instructional, Interview, Magazine, Medical (Nonfiction), Music, Nature, News, Propaganda, Public access, Public affairs, Reality-based, Religion, Social guidance, Speculation, Sponsored, Sports (Nonfiction), Talk, Training, Travelogue, War (Nonfiction). For uncut footage recording an event, such as a scientific experiment, a congressional hearing, or funeral of a famous individual, use Unedited. Fictional work for television, normally running a half hour in length, which finds humor in domestic situations and promotes traditional "family-type values." The setting is normally in the home, and the show revolves around the everyday problems of family life which are typically resolved by the show's end. The program usually features a middle-class family, more often than not in a suburban setting. Typical plots center on problems arising from school, work, or inter-family relationships which the father or mother figure solve by dispensing good advice to their children or to each other. Fictional work depicting spies and secret agents seeking to uncover or maintain secrets from each other and for one country or for the benefit of another. Living a masquerade, spies are usually cynical, amoral, deceitful, alienated, and ready to betray another person or cause, although these are often seen as merely the means to achieve a patriotic goal. Although the secrets often have a military application, the setting can be either during wartime or in the Cold War. Fictional work typically made for viewing by ethnic audiences most prominently African American, Yiddish, and Latino. Similar work has also been made in much smaller quantities for such groups as Ukrainian, Armenian, Italian, Greek, Polish, Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Native Americans. Although many of these films have inherent crossover appeal, some ethnic work has strived to go beyond its own members and reach a wide audience. Fictional narratives typically present situations unique to the specific group, and are often based on classical ethnic plays and stories, or feature performers who are stars within their community, but may not be as well known to a broader public. Ethnic work is often made and distributed outside the commercial mainstream. The designation of this genre term does not necessarily connote the veracity of the portrayals, but rather, indicates the main focus of the subject matter. Fictional or loosely nonfictional work which offered subject matter that was taboo in mainstream cinema. Such work was frequently presented under the guise of preachy expos‚s, sex education, morality plays, and pseudo-documentaries. Standard topics included the dangers of premarital sex, the vice racket, nudist cults, or the dangers of narcotics. The work was made to exploit a subject for quick profit, and usually produced on a low budget by a small company. By pandering to an audience's curiosity or prurient interest, such work is on the borderline of censorship restrictions and recognizable for its emphasis on sensational aspects with little interest in artistic or social merit. Fictional work set in a netherworld where events trespass physical laws and the bounds of human possibility, mixing the otherwise separate worlds of the natural and the supernatural. The hero often undergoes mystical experiences, and must call on powerful, extra-human forces outside themselves to prevail, such as a genie, and use such tools as a flying carpet, a magic sword or spell, or ancient religious relics. Often set in bizarre or imaginary lands, like Shangri-La or Brigadoon, among lost races, with monstrous creatures representing the divine or the diabolical, utilizing Greek mythology or Arabian Nights-type narratives. Fictional work using the crime formula, but in which crime becomes a dark metaphor that is symptomatic of what is wrong with society, rather than simply a single aberration from the norm. The film noir world is one of disillusionment and full of pervasive evil, guilt, fear, and paranoia. The protagonists are frequently anti-heroic hardboiled detectives, and are surrounded by corrupt characters that may include a femme fatale. Narratives are frequently convoluted and characterized by the use of flashbacks, voice-over narration, and echoed by visual devices reminiscent of German expressionism, such as shadows, low key lighting, and oblique, unbalanced compositions. Unlike mysteries, identifying the culprit proves less significant than revelations that justify the hero's cynical perspective. Television work in which contestants participate in various types of competitive activities for prizes, usually by answering questions on given topics. The prizes can range from automobiles to cash awards to "dates," and the mediating role of the host with contestants and celebrities is an important entertainment element. Fictional work telling a crime story concentrating on the lawbreaker, utilizing his point of view, often portraying and glorifying his rise and fall. The criminal may be either an individual or part of a gang; their rivalry with other criminals is as significant to them as their concern about police apprehension. Gangsters are often excessively ambitious, materialistic, street-wise, and immoral, and suffer from megalomania and various complexes that help lead to their destruction; they fail to understand that they are living an inversion of the dream of wealth and success, and are doomed to failure. Fictional work portraying the dark side of life, the unknown, the forbidden, and the supernatural, with the primary aim of frightening the viewer in an entertaining, cathartic manner. Frequently, haunted houses, ghosts, werewolves, zombies, vampires, or the diabolical are depicted. The menace may also come through the horrific impact of nature or science gone wrong, such as a monster deliberately or accidentally created by advanced technology, or from Earth under attack by extraterrestrial beings; in such cases use Horror in conjunction with Science fiction. Fictional work centered around the world of reporters and news, with deadlines, breaking stories, competition among their colleagues, feuding with their editor, and yellow journalism and questions of journalistic ethics. Such work is typically involved with such activities as searching for a "scoop," exposing crime and corruption, and obsessively pursuing a story, often to the point of destroying a person's reputation. Includes stories of journalists in the print, newsreel, and broadcast mediums. Fictional work depicting criminal tendencies and actions among people in their teens and twenties. The setting is often in an urban slum or a school, with the characters becoming members of rival gangs, with events leading to violence. Such work is typically aimed largely at a younger audience, through representations of misunderstood youth rebelling against the perceived restraints and hypocrisies of adults. Nonfiction work focusing on music, musicians, and singers. Music work may be biographical, ethnographic, educational, or instructional in nature.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Music. For work documenting single or multiple music concerts or events, use Music in conjunction with the form Performance. For variety programs and films that contain predominantly musical segments, use Music with Variety. For fictional treatments that deal with music subjects and contain musical numbers, use Musical. Provide access for specific types of music performed or discussed through subject headings.

Predominantly theatrical fiction work whose plot is structured around segments featuring combinations of music, song, and dance, including such various types as backstage, comedy, rock, and musical biographies. In the Hollywood context, musicals emerged with the coming of sound motion pictures, from roots in stage musicals and operettas, revues, and vaudeville. Fictional work in which a detective (sometimes merely an endangered individual forced to "detect" for his own self-protection) attempts to solve a crime, usually a murder or theft. The detective may be an amateur, a private investigator, or a plainclothes member of a police force, but whatever the identity, the mystery places the emphasis on the search for clues and rationative power of the detective, rather than the efforts of police or lawbreakers. In the mystery, suspense derives from the narrative's puzzle-like structure, with a group of suspects, whose testimony and motives must all be investigated until, in the surprising conclusion, the intelligent detective perceives the flawed alibi or other clue betraying the culprit's identity. Popular mystery heroes from literature include Boston Blackie, Father Brown, Charlie Chan, Adam Dalgliesh, Nancy Drew, the Hardy Boys, Sherlock Holmes, Miss Marple, Hercule Poirot, Ellery Queen, The Saint, Michael Shayne, Philo Vance, Lord Peter Wimsey, Nero Wolfe, Mr. Wong, and The Thin Man. Hardboiled detectives including Philip Marlowe, Sam Spade, and Mike Hammer are sometimes classified under Film noir. Some mystery heroes cross with other genres, such as Torchy Blane with Journalism, and Hopalong Cassidy or the Cisco Kid, most of whose exploits are mysteries within a Western setting. Nonfiction television relating topical events and background stories on matters contemporary with their broadcast date, usually organized in reports from correspondents on specific news stories. Fictional work portraying the activities and personalities of official law enforcement officers and agencies (from municipal police to F.B.I. to G-men) in tracking criminals. Police stories offer many of the same elements as the Crime and Mystery genres, but with an added concentration on the procedures of police work and characterizations of police officers. Narratives are often concerned with their excessive devotion to their work and police procedure as they cope with office routine, bureaucracy, and the death of fellow officers in the line of duty. Unlike detectives, policemen fear discovering that they will turn corrupt or are beginning to share traits in common with their criminal adversaries, by also adopting illegal tactics, although for the purpose of apprehending criminals. Fictional work taking place in the distant past, before civilization or recorded history, and concentrating on showing living creatures long since extinct. Despite sometimes conflating the chronology of evolution, events are treated as factual, not fantasy (that is, without supernatural or magical elements). Plots frequently show cavemen fighting rival tribes as well as dinosaurs or early giant mammals. Alternatively, modern humans find prehistoric life, still surviving in an isolated "lost world" in one of the Earth's remote regions; they must then learn to survive amidst these conditions and escape. Television nonfiction work which include discussions, debates, speeches, and editorials on politics, government, and public policy. The participants may range from a college debate team to journalists, and politicians are frequent guests. Type of television non-fictional work in which the term "based" signifies its derivation from actual footage, usually of police and criminal action, although also indulging in speculation and sometimes using recreated footage or staging a mock trial. Non-dramatized work such as lectures or discussions on religious topics, or worship services, ministries, sermons, revivals, miracles, or interpretations of contemporary issues, such as creationism. The "nonfiction" label refers simply to style of presentation and is not evaluative, referring purely to the technique used. Fictional work designed to demonstrate the positive (and, less often, negative) power of spirituality and redemption through religious faith. Typical strains are dramatizations of the life of Christ or adaptations of Biblical stories, frequently emphasizing miracles, the beginning of Christianity, and conflicts with nonbelievers. Fictional work that relies on some type(s) of advanced technology, scientific development, or encounter with alien life, to make the narrative possible. Stories frequently have a prophetic nature, forecasting how technological changes may impact society in the years to come. Fictional work for television, normally running a half hour in length, which creates humor around the lives of a cast of recurring characters and the "situations" in which they find themselves. Generally, regardless of what happens in any given episode, the characters remain in the same relationships and position as they were before, and much of the humor derives from this predictability. The characters seldom change, and react in an expected manner to whatever challenges them, and generally the overall tenor of the shows is upbeat, expecting a happy, satisfying resolution. Everyday life is often an important element, and as a result, although the setting could be almost anywhere, most situation comedies are set in the home or workplace. Type of fictional horror work, highlighting shock and violence, most often centered around a male psycho killer who slashes to death a string of mostly female victims, one by one, until he is subdued or killed, usually by the one woman who has survived and fights back. Often the murderer is motivated by perverse sexuality or some past misdeed, taking revenge on the larger community, and killing becomes a metaphor for rape. A type of documentary that focuses on actual mysteries or events, past and present, but instead of traditional, rational explanations, offers possible interpretations or solutions that are largely speculative and unprovable since the necessary material evidence is lacking. Favorite topics range from such historical events as the disappearance of Amelia Earhart to possible contact with alien beings. Nonfiction or fiction work, typically ten minutes or longer in length, produced by, financed, or otherwise significantly supported by a business, government body, professional organization, or nonprofit association, with the intent to promote the sponsoring entity. Sponsored work may be educational, industrial, propagandistic, or, less commonly, instructional in nature. Although largely distributed by video today, sponsored work covering a wide variety of subjects and presenting differing levels of self-promotion or propaganda have historically been shown theatrically and at expositions, rented to schools and community organizations, and broadcast as economical "filler" programming for network and cable television. Fictional work concentrating on how an individual athlete or team, through strength, training, agility, and-or tactics, compete in the often corrupt world of sports. Plots usually relate the victory of an underdog or the fall (and sometimes return) of the champion. Usually the world of a single sport is dramatized, such as baseball, basketball, boxing, football, horseracing, bullfighting, or automobile racing. Television work which features discussions that are aimed primarily at entertaining an audience, and which although they may sometimes relate to current events, do not qualify as Public affairs. The guests may be celebrities or other well-known individuals, or the work may be thematically focused, introducing otherwise ordinary people who have shared certain experiences. The work may contain questions from the host that are answered by the guests, but the structure is generally more informal than that of a straightforward interview. Fictional work frequently related to the crime genre in that the subject is usually some aspect of criminal activity, but with the emphasis away from a detective, gangster, caper, or even the crime itself. Instead, the narrative concentrates on suspense as an individual or group is placed in a dangerous situation whose outcome hinges on sudden reversals of fate. Frequent themes are political conspiracy, terrorism, innocents on the run, romantic triangles leading to murder, and individuals suffering from psychosis. Work that is generally hosted and consists of a number of different acts, sketches, and/or dance and musical performances, combined in a non-narrative manner. Although predominantly for television, some theatrical film variety work has also been produced.

Note: If the work predominantly features comedy acts or skits, particularly if the host or star is known primarily as a comedian, use Comedy with Variety. If the work instead predominantly features musical, song, and/or dance numbers, use Music with Variety. In the case of work that appears to be evenly split between comedy and musical acts, or consist of other types of segments, simply use Variety.

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